The course will be presented using lectures, classroom demonstrations, problem sessions and class discussions. Films and audio-visual materials will be used where appropriate. Problem sets will be assigned regularly to be handed in and marked. The laboratory consists of performance of ten experiments and a two-week inorganic chemistry project.
Applications of Spectroscopy
Electromagnetic spectrum and molecular transitions; UV/Visible spectroscopy: instrumentation, use and limitations of Beer's Law; Infrared Spectroscopy: instrumentation, interpretation of spectra; NMR: theory and instrumentation, prediction and identification of spectra; atomic absorption; gas-liquid chromatography.
One and two component systems, Gibbs phase rule, review of ideal solutions, tie-line rule, P vs X and boiling point diagrams for two liquid components, distillation, partially miscible pairs, binary phase diagrams for condensed phases.
Solutions of Electrolytes
Theories of strong and weak electrolytes, ionic strength, activity and activity coefficient; use of activities of electrolytes in pH and equilibrium calculations.
Chemical Kinetics - Elementary Reactions
Rate, rate law, half-life, integrated rate equation for zero, first, and second order reactions, determination of order, rate and activation energy; collision theory and transition state theory.
Chemical Kinetics - Composite Reaction Mechanisms
Parallel and consecutive reactions, steady-state treatment, rate-determining steps, equilibrium constants, free radical mechanisms, enzyme catalyzed reactions.
Nomenclature, Werner Coordination Theory, bonding: Valence Bond Theory, Crystal Field Theory, Molecular Orbital Theory; isomerism, stability constants: factors effecting stability, determination of stability constants; kinetics and mechanisms of reactions of coordination complexes.
The following experiments will be performed during the laboratory period:
- Quantitative UV/Vis Spectroscopy
- Determination of Keto-Enol Equilibrium Constants by NMR
- Binary Solid-Liquid Phase Diagram
- Geometric Isomers of a Cr(III) Complex
- Gas Chromatography
- Kinetics of H2O2 Decomposition
- Kinetics of the Iodination of Acetone
- Preparation and Identification of Co(III) Complexes
- Paramagnetic Susceptibility: (a) Gouy Balance (b) NMR
- Inorganic Term Project
With the aid of the relevant thermodynamic data, a periodic table, an equation sheet, and a calculator, the student will be able to:
- solve problems of the following general types:
- interpretation of NMR, IR, and UV/VIS spectra
- use of Beer-Lambert Law for systems containing one or two absorbing species
- calculation of activities of strong electrolytes in solution.
- use of activity coefficients in the calculation of pH, K, and Ksp.
- calculations involving one or two component phase equilibria
- calculation of the order and rate constant of a chemical reaction
- calculation of the rate, amount of decomposition, and activation energy of a reaction
- derivation of the rate law for a reaction given the mechanism
- calculations involving use of the formation constants of a coordination compound.
Lecture Material (70%)
- Three tests will be given, each worth 20%. These tests will cover (a) spectroscopy, phase equilibria, and electrolytes, (b) kinetics, and (c) coordination chemistry. The last of these tests will be given during the final examination period.
- Problem assignments will be assigned on a regular basis (about seven) to be handed in and marked (10%).
- The laboratory grade will be based on the written report (including accuracy of any experimentally obtained values) of each experiment performed (24%). The report for the inorganic project must be written in the style appropriate for submitting to a scientific journal (conforming to the ACS Style Guide) (6%).
Textbooks and Materials to be Purchased by Students
- Laidler, K.J.; Meiser, J.H. and Sanctuary, B.C. Physical Chemistry, 4rd Edition, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, New York, 2003
- Douglas College, Chemistry 410 Laboratory Manual, 2000.
- Basolo, F.; Johnson, R.C.; Coordination Chemistry; Science Reviews, 1986.
CHEM 1210 (C or better)