The course will be presented using lecture, problem sessions and class discussions. In-class demonstrations of computer-based educational materials and videos will be used where appropriate. The laboratory consists of experiments performed by students, either individually or in pairs, which illustrate the lecture material, or encourage good experimental technique. Close coordination will be maintained between laboratory and classroom work whenever possible. This will be accomplished by discussing laboratory experiments in class and, when necessary, by using the lab period for problem solving.
1. Introduction and Review
- Scientific Measurements: Measurements, errors, precision and accuracy, uncertainty, average deviation, significant figures.
- Atoms, Molecules, and Ions: Isotopes, mole, formulas, percentage composition, nomenclature.
- Stoichiometry Review: Types of reactions, calculation of percentage yield, limiting reactant problems, solutions: concentration units and stoichiometry, titrations
2. Principles of Reactivity: Thermochemistry
Energy units, heat capacity, energy transfer, enthalpy, calorimetry, phase changes, Hess’s Law, standard heats of formation, fuels.
3. Chemical Equilibrium
The equilibrium constant, interpretation of equilibrium constant values, calculations involving K, Le Chatelier’s Principle, controlling chemical reactions.
4. Gases and Liquids
Properties of gases, Boyle’s Law, Charles Law, and the Ideal Gas equation, calculations, gas mixtures, Dalton’s Law of partial pressures, Kinetic Molecular Theory, the atmosphere. The liquid state, vaporization and condensation, ?Hphase change and calculation of heat of phase changes.
5. Introduction to Acids and Bases
Properties, definitions, conjugate acid/base pairs, autoionization of water, pH scale, relative acid strengths, Ka and Kb, calculations, salts and hydrolysis, common ion effect.
6. Redox Reactions and Electrochemistry
Redox reactions, oxidation numbers, half reactions, balancing redox equations. Electrochemical cells, calculation of cell voltage, using standard cell potentials.
7. Descriptive Chemistry
Several topics will be selected from the following list: Applications of Electrochemistry; Industrial Applications of Chemistry: sodium by electrolysis, chlorine and sodium hydroxide, aluminum production; Environmental Chemistry, the atmosphere, pollutants, sulphur; Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry: qualitative analysis.
The following laboratory experiments will be performed during the lab period:
- Analytical balance and metric conversions
- Density measurements
- Acid-Base Titrations
- Redox: Determination of Water of Hydration
- Chemical Equilibrium
- Ideal Gas Constant
- Redox: Water of hydration of Copper (II) Sulfate
- Acid Dissociation Constant
- Express the precision of a calculated quantity given the uncertainties in the measurements used in the calculation.
- Given the mass of a substance, calculate the number of moles, and the number of particles in the sample.
- Given the percent composition of a compound and the molar mass, find the empirical and molecular formulas.
- Given the balanced equation for a chemical reaction, carry out the required stoichiometric calculations. The substances in the reaction may be gases, solids, liquids, or solutions.
- Define any of the terms used in the course, for example: mole, specific heat capacity, ideal gas, common ion effect, etc.
- Carry out thermochemical calculations based on data obtained in calorimetric measurements.
- Use thermochemical tables to calculate H° for a given chemical reaction.
- Solve problems involving gases, assuming idea gas behaviour.
- Describe the Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases and use this to explain any of the observed properties of gases.
- Given the solubility of ionic compounds in water, write the net ionic equation for any reaction occurring in aqueous solution.
- Use the Principle of Le Chatelier to predict the direction of change in a system in equilibrium as the result of a given change in temperature, pressure, or volume of the system.
- Solve problems involving the use of the concentration equilibrium constant, K?, for gaseous systems.
- Write balanced equations for all reactions or equilibria involving acids and bases.
- Calculate the pH of a given solution of any strong acid or base.
- Calculate the pH and percent ionization of a solution of given concentration of a weak acid or base (or the salt of a weak acid or base).
- Given the concentration and volume of a strong acid which is titrated with a given concentration of strong base, calculate the initial pH, and the pH after the addition of various volumes of the base.
- Balance any redox reaction.
- For any given galvanic cell, write the cell reaction equation and calculate the standard cell emf.
- Use tables of standard electrode potentials to predict reaction spontaneity for a given redox reaction.
- Explain how the principles learned in this course can be applied to the following areas: corrosion of metals, the atmosphere and air pollution, industrial processes such as sodium by electrolysis, production of chlorine, sodium hydroxide, and aluminium, magnesium from the sea, and metals and their ores.
Lecture Material (75%)
- Two or three in-class tests will be given during the semester (30% in total).
- A final exam covering the entire semester’s work will be given during the final examination period (30%).
- Any or all of the following evaluations, at the discretion of the instructor: problem assignments, quizzes, class participation (5% maximum). (15% in total)
- Written reports for each experiment will be handed in and graded. These reports will either be complete reports, to be handed in in the laboratory notebook, or short reports, to be handed in on report sheets. There will also be several written quizzes based on the procedure and theory of the various experiments. (16 - 18%).
- Quantitative results of experiments performed on unknown samples will be graded (0 - 2%).
- A practical laboratory exam will be given in the last lab period of the semester (5%).
Textbooks and Materials to be Purchased by Students
Custom Publication for Douglas College Chemistry 1108 from Chemistry – The Molecular Science, Moore, Stanitski, Jurs, 3rd Edition, Thomson, 2008.
Chemistry1108 Laboratory Manual, Douglas College
CHEM 1104 (C or better) AND MATH 11 (C or better) or equivalent
CHEM 11 (C or better) AND MATH 11 (C or better) or equivalent AND a minimum score of 11 on the Chemistry Assessment test (OR Assessment test exemption)